I write a lot of technical documents, and it is important to me that they look nice. In the past I have always resorted to using latex directly. It’s an ugly language, hard to maintain, but it has always been the best solution. Microsoft Word completely fails at complex documents, and is tedious and buggy if you want to do anything technical with it. If I have a simpler document without much math or special formatting I’ve always used Markdown.
Recently however I was able to get the best of both worlds. Using R-script’s flavored Markdown it adds a tremendous amount of power to Markdown. The most important feature is the fact that it uses pandoc in order to compile your Markdown text into a latex template which is then used to compile a PDF. This means I get all the power of latex with all the simplicity of Markdown. That alone made it a winner for me, but it also allows you to compile into HTML and a number of other formats which can make it even more useful.
It also has one other very sweet added bonus if you don’t mind coding in R-Script: you can put R-script code directly into your markdown in order to produce charts or other output programmatically. R-script is a heavily math oriented programming language so it can be extremely powerful when writing math papers.
If you want to get started using R-flavored Markdown to compile into latex and PDF I have provided my templates on GitHub. I also have another GitHub repository where I provide a complete example of a markdown document and makefile that will compile it into a PDF. Really simple to figure it out, just clone the repository and start editing it. Make sure, of course, that you have R-script installed and all the prerequisites you might need. Finally I also have a third GitHub repository with even more templates and examples. Some of the examples go in depth on showing how you can use r-script inside the Markdown to generate plots and graphs or other data. Worth a look there are templates for CVs/resumes, articles, powerpoint presentations, syllabus, etc.
R-flavored Markdown files use the extension “Rmd” and use all the conventional Markdown syntax with some additions. All you need to do is add some front-matter to the begining of the Markdown file which provides some hints to the latex template to do some formatting. The front-matter looks like the following, taken directly from the example I linked. The rest of the content of the file is just the Markdown, very simple. You can see the full file with front-matter and Markdown as used in this example by clicking the link.
output: pdf_document: citation_package: natbib keep_tex: true fig_caption: true latex_engine: pdflatex template: templates/syncleus-white.tex # Required properties title: "Conditional Probabilities and Bayes Theorem" abstract: "A simple explanation of conditional probabilities." author: name: Jeffrey Phillips Freeman affiliation: Syncleus correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org # Optional Properties other-authors: - name: John Doe affiliation: NoTech tags: Statistics, Math start-date: "April 6, 2017" date: "`r format(Sys.time(), '%B %d, %Y')`" draft: "`r format(Sys.time(), '%B %d, %Y')`" revision: 1.1 tocdepth: 5 title-color: 0,0,90 # No indentation indent: 0pt parskip: 3mm # Standard Anglo-american indentation #indent: 15pt #parskip: 0mm archive: Pseudoscience Journal of America geometry: left=2cm, right=2cm, top=2.25cm, bottom=2.25cm, headheight=13.6pt, letterpaper bibliography: ./probabilities.bib biblio-style: plainnat biblio-title: References
Below you will see the output of the compiled pdf using this example, different temples can give different layouts and formatting.
In the above examples you can see how the date properties are generated dynamically as the current date using R-script. This gives you just a small taste of how you can use R-script directly inside the Markdown files. Most of the properties above are self explanatory but let me provide a few descriptions for clarity all the same.
- title - The title of the document.
- abstract - A few sentences describing the document used int he abstract box once rendered.
- author - Information about the author
- other-authors - Optional supplemental authors.
- tags - optional list of keywords.
- start-date - Date the author began working on the paper. This is used int he copyright information.
- date - Date the paper was released, this is used int he copyright information.
- draft - Optional text which will appear in a Draft watermark on the paper. If this property is left out then no draft watermark will be added.
- revision - The revision version number of the paper displayed int he upper right corner.
- tocdepth - The maximum depth displayed int he table of contents for nested sections.
- title-color - 3 comma separated integers from 0 to 255 representing the RGB color of the title text.
- indent - The size of the paragraph indentation.
- parskip - The vertical distance between paragraphs.
- archive - The name of the journal or archive the paper is to be published in.
- geometry - Optional parameters that overrides the latex geometry, useful for setting custom margins.
- bibliography - location of the natbib or bibtext bibliography file.
- biblio-style - Optional override for the bibliography style.
- biblio-title - The title used for the bibliography section.
Thats really all there is to it. One last thing, I made sure the properties I picked for my template match those expected in a middleman blog written in markdown. This adds some convenience that the same source file can be compiled by either Middleman or R-script.